A medico-legal report is not indispensable to the prosecution of a rape case.

In fact, medico-legal report could even be dispensed with because it is merely “corroborative evidence”.

A medico-legal reports are at most corroborative because they are mere opinions that can only infer possibilities and not absolute necessities.

The physician who conducted the medical examination did not witness the actual incident (rape). Hence, he cannot testify on what exactly happened as his testimony would not be based on personal knowledge or derived from his own perception. This is so because under the “Hearsay  Evidence Rule”, a witness can testify only to those facts which he knows of his personal knowledge; that is, which are derived from his own perception.

Consequently, a medico-legal examiner, if allowed to testify, cannot testify to establish a certain fact, but can only “suggest” what most likely happened.

Source: People of the Philippines vs. Juvy Amarela and Junard Racho (January 17, 2018)